The Evolution of Retrieval Systems in AI The Evolution of Retrieval Systems in AI
In a recent episode of the ODSC Ai X Podcast, Pasquale Antonante, co-founder and CTO of Relari AI, discussed the intricacies... The Evolution of Retrieval Systems in AI

In a recent episode of the ODSC Ai X Podcast, Pasquale Antonante, co-founder and CTO of Relari AI, discussed the intricacies of building and optimizing generative AI systems, drawing parallels from the autonomous vehicle industry. Here is a summary of our conversation with Pasquale, focusing on the challenges and advancements in AI retrieval systems, hybrid retrieval approaches, and evaluation methodologies. If you want to listen to the entire podcast, you can listen to it on Spotify, Apple, and SoundCloud.

In-Person and Virtual Conference

September 5th to 6th, 2024 – London

Featuring 200 hours of content, 90 thought leaders and experts, and 40+ workshops and training sessions, Europe 2024 will keep you up-to-date with the latest topics and tools in everything from machine learning to generative AI and more.


The Evolution of Retrieval Systems in AI

Pasquale began by addressing the initial optimism around vector search, which was once considered the ultimate solution for information retrieval in AI systems. However, this approach quickly revealed limitations, particularly in providing precise and relevant results consistently. Pasquale emphasized that a purely vector-based retrieval system often falls short, leading to the adoption of hybrid retrieval systems that combine vector embeddings with traditional keyword-based searches like BM25.

Hybrid retrieval systems enhance the retrieval process by embedding queries into a semantic space and retrieving contextually similar information. Simultaneously, they use keyword searches to ensure no relevant information is overlooked. This dual approach helps address the inherent weaknesses of relying solely on one method. However, it also introduces new complexities, such as managing the large volumes of data retrieved by different methods and filtering this data effectively before presenting it to the language model.

Challenges in Managing Retrieval Systems and Using Rerankers

One significant challenge with hybrid retrieval systems is the sheer volume of information they generate. Initially, systems might retrieve three to five chunks of data, but with multiple retrieval methods, this can quickly multiply, overwhelming the language model (LLM). To combat this, a re-ranker is employed to filter and prioritize the most relevant chunks, ensuring the LLM receives high-quality, contextually appropriate information.

Pasquale explained that even with advanced models featuring extensive context windows, providing too much information can lead to noise and inefficiency. Thus, chunking documents and knowledge bases into smaller, manageable pieces becomes crucial. This chunking process, combined with a re-ranker, helps maintain the balance between comprehensiveness and conciseness in the information fed to the LLM.

Level Up Your AI Expertise! Subscribe Now:  File:Spotify icon.svg - Wikipedia Soundcloud - Free social media icons File:Podcasts (iOS).svg - Wikipedia

Enhancing Retrieval with Classification

Another layer of complexity in AI retrieval systems is the classification step. This step involves understanding the user’s intent, which can then guide the retrieval process more accurately. By incorporating domain knowledge and metadata filtering, systems can further refine the relevance of the retrieved information. This multi-step process of retrieval, re-ranking, and classification is essential for developing effective AI systems capable of generating accurate and useful responses.

The Role of Evaluation in AI Systems

Evaluation of AI systems is another critical aspect Pasquale touched upon. He described two primary metrics used to measure the effectiveness of retrieval systems: precision and recall. Precision measures the proportion of relevant information retrieved, while recall assesses whether all relevant information has been captured. The ideal retrieval system maximizes both metrics, retrieving only all relevant content. However, achieving this balance remains a significant challenge in the field.

Pasquale also highlighted different evaluation methodologies, including reference-based and synthetic data-based approaches. These methods are crucial for continuously improving AI systems by providing feedback on their performance. Reference-based evaluations involve comparing the system’s output against a set of predefined correct answers, while synthetic data-based approaches generate artificial data to test the system’s capabilities. Both methods offer valuable insights but also come with their own sets of challenges and limitations.

Future Directions in AI Retrieval and Evaluation

Looking ahead, Pasquale expressed optimism about the future of AI retrieval systems, noting the continuous developments in the field. He mentioned that every day, new retrieval strategies and systems are being developed, each contributing to the gradual improvement of AI capabilities. Pasquale also emphasized the importance of leveraging synthetic data for fine-tuning language models, as it allows for more robust testing and validation of AI systems.

In-Person & Virtual Data Science Conference

October 29th-31st, 2024 – Burlingame, CA

Join us for 300+ hours of expert-led content, featuring hands-on, immersive training sessions, workshops, tutorials, and talks on cutting-edge AI tools and techniques, including our first-ever track devoted to AI Robotics!



The podcast with Pasquale Antonante provided a comprehensive overview of the current state and future directions of AI retrieval systems. His insights into the challenges of vector search, the benefits of hybrid retrieval systems, and the importance of precise evaluation methodologies offer valuable guidance for those involved in developing and using generative AI applications. As the field continues to evolve, the lessons and strategies shared by experts like Pasquale will be instrumental in shaping the next generation of AI technologies.



ODSC gathers the attendees, presenters, and companies that are shaping the present and future of data science and AI. ODSC hosts one of the largest gatherings of professional data scientists with major conferences in USA, Europe, and Asia.